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The light source of traditional surgical shadowless lamps is usually halogen lamp, but it can cause serious environmental pollution. In order to achieve the goal of environmental protection, light emitting diode (LED) is applied to this research as light source; the advantages of LED are cold light, low color temperature, high color rendering, and long life term, that solved the heat radiation problems and the color performance of the surgical parts can be enhanced.
Surgical shadowless lamp which is designed to reduce the shadow generated by hands or surgical tools to meet the regulation plays a critically important role in the surgery room. But the energy consumption of projective shadowless lamps is too high to generate the problem of irradiance heat because there were many halogen lamps used as light source. Compared with projective surgical lamps, reflective shadowless lamps have been developed for a long time, a surgical lamp designed by an elliptic curve reflector was invented by Dorman in 1970, and the authors brought up another elliptic curve assembled by many long and thin lenses in 1979. Michael and Holt brought up a cone surface reflector combined with a refractive lens below the reflector. Ries and Muschaweck developed three-dimensional design methods known as tailored freeform method, which can calculate asymmetric or symmetric optics surface; Fournier proposed a design methods that can ease the design of freeform reflectors and provide efficient, cost-effective solutions that avoid unnecessary energy consumption and light pollution in 2010. Canavesi et al. proposed a fast and simple algorithm to design two-dimensional reflector surfaces in 2012. Compared with the linear programming method, the direct calculation algorithm can produce the same result in shorter time. In 2012, Chen et al. proposed a freeform reflector design method of uniform illumination. Moreover, the equation and the boundary condition could be determined by the characteristics of light source.